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belongs to an inferior and uncivilised race; but that, on the other hand, the elevating and civilising ideas which are to be fostered in him, can be called forth by persons who are strangers to his association of ideas, or who have become estranged to the only method by which a Jew can be successfully brought to the position he is desired to hold as a useful member of society. The disorder of the households reappears in the slovenliness with which trade, chiefly in Jewish hands, is taught, and with which the manufactured articles are executed.
The quantity of persons engaged in one and the same trade creates an unsound state of rivalry, and it is felt that a painstaking and careful execution of work would not pay in the midst of half-starved competitors. The mechanic, perhaps unskilled in the art of rightly finishing his task, is unable to spare the time to teach his apprentices all the niceties of his handicraft. The apprentice, ill-requited for the years he is bound to remain with his master, rarely completes the term of his apprenticeship. The number of unskilled workmen is therefore in great excess, and the Jewish artisan is, in his community, looked upon as the pariah of society. A man who has a marriageable daughter (perhaps 14 or 15 years old) will not freely choose as his son-in-law one who has been brought up as an artisan. Such a son-in-law would not add to the lustre of the family into which he marries. The choice of the ambitious father of a girl lights on a Talmudical student, although the latter may have to go through many trials before he will earn enough to support the offspring of this premature marriage. Artisans themselves have hitherto preferred to train their sons as Talmudists, instead of preparing them for the station of working men. For there is a striving after elevation and after some kind of culture in every grade of Jewish society. Workmen belonging to a particular trade are known to club together for the purpose of appointing a poor rabbi, who lectures to them, in his own unskilled and unmethodical fashion, at the hour when they seek recreation from a hard day's labour.
Although huddled together in wretched dwellings, and having to endure many privations in consequence of great competition, the Jewish operatives are not disposed to avail themselves of the special privileges which are accorded to workmen migrating into the interior of Russia. They prefer the very scanty certainties of their native places to the adventurous search of a new home among populations where tolerance may be unknown, and where the facilities of following the observances of Judaism may be wanting. This is the true reason why so few bond fide Jewish workmen emigrate into the interior of Russia.
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