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rivals to the established synagogues. They cripple the income of the congregations, and interfere with the efficiency of public worship. ^The synagogues are therefore chiefly attended by the indigent classes.
Like their Mahomed an neighbours, the Jews are disposed to be rigid in their observances. But they remain utterly destitute of proper religious instruction, and confirm the ancient adage, " Ignorance and piety are incompatible." There is no spirit, no elevation in their so-called orthodoxy. The pulpit, which elsewhere helps to popularise the study of the principles of the Jewish religion, is left empty. Public worship here appeals to custom, but not to the heart, and so becomes altogether a mere mechanical service of the lips. If an able ecclesiastic presided over the community, he might possibly act as a regenerator of religious discipline. A Chief Rabbi of Turkey, recognised and salaried by the Government, would not be exposed to such collisions and frictions as are now and then witnessed in countries adjacent to Turkey. Unhappily, however, the Jewish population of Constantinople has become utterly devoid of energy, and has lost its sense of solidarity; it is therefore positively incapable of seeking and appointing an efficient Chacham Bashi, that is, a Jewish ecclesiastical Primate.
The Rabbinical office is at present filled by a Kaimakan (a substitute for the chief holder of the office). Ihis Rabbi does not claim to possess the qualifications necessary for a spiritual and world-wise chief. Though his emoluments are those of a CAacMm gaa/w, he does not profess to figure as the spiritual adviser of the community. According to the constitutional law of the land, the Chief Rabbi should be aided in the performance of his functions by a Council of six^ assessois, so as to conduct satisfactorily the religious affairs of his flock. This Council has become dormant. It has not met since the last three years. The draws a salary
of 1,000 francs a month from the Turkish Government. In addition he is paid 400 francs a month from the revenue arising out of the so-called gdbella. This income is derived from rates put upon the sale of kasher meat and other articles of consumption, such as kasher cheese, wine, vinegar, and Passover biscuits. A very small tax is levied upon some of the Jewish merchants, and this yields a moderate addition to the gdbella. There are besides" these rates, small fees put upon dowers and some other items. The gabella yields an annual income of 60,000 to 65,000 francs. It was expected that this revenue would be nearly doubled by
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