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condemned to lifteen years' hard labour ! They .were, I believe, Jews. A Jewish journalist, editor of the Odessa Leaflet, was accused of having purchased two pamphlets issued by a secret printing-office from a revolutionist, named Dudin. He was kept in prison for a year, and finally, in 1886, he was exiled to Siberia. Being a Jew, he was sent to Sredne-Kolynsk. It is well to state that the latest cruelty invented by the Russian Government is the establishment of penal stations within the Arctic circle, where practically night reigns for many months, and where it is impossible for men accustomed to more temperate climates long to withstand the rigorous winters. One of the worst of these places is Sredne-Kolynsk. Perhaps one of the hardest cases was that of another Jew named Liadoff, who had a prosperous business in Eiga. One morning he received a note requesting him to go on board an English ship in the harbour. He went and asked for the writer, who turned out to be a German. The sailor told Eiadoff that he had a parcel of revolutionary pamphlets entrusted to him by a Geneva friend,'but could not find the person to whom they were addressed in Eiga. He said that a friend of his in Geneva had casually mentioned Liadoff's name to him, and he had therefore written to him, and wanted him to take care of the pamphlets. This Liadoff energetically declined to do. The sailor was subsequently arrested, and Liadoff was called upon to account for his visit to him. This was in October, 1885. Soon after he married, and in January, 1886, was at dinner with his wife, when a messenger came from the Colonel of Gendarmerie asking him to come to his office immediately. He was then told that according to a telegram from St. Petersburg he was to leave for Eastern Siberia by the next train in two hours. He protested that it must be a mistake, and begged the Colonel to ask the Governor for a respite. The Governor, who knew Eiadoff, telegraphed to St. Petersburg vouching for his innocence, and asking if it was not a mistake. The result was an angry telegram from St. Petersburg saying that they did not make mistakes, and reprimanding the Governor for having delayed the execution of the order. Thereupon Liadoff was marched off to Eastern Siberia, and as he was a Jew, he was sent to Sredire-Kolynsk. Another instance was that of two boys, Landa and Hornstein, aged fifteen and sixteen, studying at the Odessa Gymnasium. In 1885 a relative of the boys took a man compromised by political propaganda to their house, saying he wanted a night's lodging. The boys knew nothing about him or his politics. The police came and opened a parcel belonging to the man, in which revolutionary publications were found. The boys were arrested, but although it was proved that they knew nothing about the publications, they were kept in solitary confinement for a year and a half, and then without trial sent for five years to Eastern Siberia. The treatment of the prisoners on the march is most inhuman. The prison houses at which they stop are overcrowded, and there are often
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