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exposed by M. Fior, who, after being expelled in 1885, together with the other Jewish exiles, returned to Roumania and thus forced the Government to bring him before the Court, and so test the validity of the decree of expulsion. After nine months of struggle in the Courts, caused by the impossibility of obtaining justice, the highest Court, under the pressure of the Government, pronounced all the Roumanian Jews to be foreigners.
The condition of the Jews was made still more intolerable by the action of foreign Governments, especially the Austro-Hungarian, which withdrew their protection from those Jews residing in Roumania who had previously enjoyed it, and left them to the tender mercy of the Roumanian Government. The number of unprotected Jews increased, and with them the hardships they had to endure. They have to contribute to all the direct and indirect taxations, from some of which they had previously been exempt. The last, though not least, of their grievances, was that they were prohibited from leaving the country, not by law, but simply by a private ministerial circular, directing that no passports were any longer to be delivered to Jews. Even those who were ordered for their health to foreign watering-places were compelled to stop in Roumania. This ordinance was applied even to those foreign Jews who previously enjoyed the protection of their native country.
In order that the actual condition of the Jews in Roumania may be duly appreciated, some of the barbarities practised by the late Government must be referred to, for none of the laws are repealed under which these things were done; all are still in full vigour, and the lowest official can put them into practice with the utmost severity. Only the regulation as to passports has been somewhat modified.
The most cruel measure, passed by the late Government of M. Bratiano, is shaped after one existing in Russia. All schools in Roumania are Government schools; there are no fees for entrance or education to be paid, all the expenses being defrayed by the Treasury. The Jews contribute very largely to the national income, and yet, in spite of that, M. Sturdza, the
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