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,finally expelled from both countries at the end of ■~e nfteenth century. The fugitives found a refuge in North Atiica, Turkey, and the other States bordering on the Mediterranean, where their descendants speak an old form of bpamsh to the present day. Others strayed into Central Europe and became absorbed among the masses of their brethren of the German rite, while many Jewish families lingered m the Peninsula, feigning Christianity, into which most of them gradually lapsed; and some escaped by degrees during the next two centuries, generally directing their steps towards Holland, where they reassumed Judaism.
til j .ews were expelled from France (where they had been settled m large numbers from the times of the Romans) in • lonj after having been readmitted, were finally banished m 1394, though they were retained in the fiefs of many of the almost independent nobles. Nevertheless, their number was greatly reduced, and they can hardly be said to have re-acquired a legally-recognised position in France till 1791, ai/ the ejjoch of the Great Revolution.
A few Jews are stated to have arrived in England in the company of Phoenician traders at a very early period; but very many came over in the train of William the Conqueror, o early Jews of this country spoke French, as did those of Southern Germany along the Rhine. After attaining a piominent position and having been subjected to many repressive edicts, they were driven out by Edward I. in 1292 ; and though isolated Jews wore probably never wanting from our country, they did not openly reappear till 1656, when Menasseh ben Israel obtained the edict from Cromwell allowing their readmission, and even then their resettlement was very gradual.
During the whole course of the Middle Ages the Jews were constantly expelled from one or another state or city of the German Empire or of Italy, always to reappear, irrepressible from their own active nature, and from the actual necessities of the populations themselves. In hardly any country but Holland can the Jews be said to have possessed full legal rights until the end of the last century; in few have they enjoyed them till the last forty or fifty years. Even in England, where they were treated with the fullest toleration, they were considered as aliens in the eye of the law, and were incapable of exercising the functions of citizenship or holding landed property until sixty or seventy years ar>'o. In Goimany, the Austrian States anil Italy, they were, during the first decades of this century confined to certain portions
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