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T.TCATiR TEE WILLING, BUT DRIVES TEE STUBBORN.
In a joke to funcA, liad seen it rc-appear as a Leech picture, and had been astonished to And that current fables about Mr. ftmck's largesse in such rases did not come true
"Dear Sir—The editor of Punch Is tbe person who shonld be addressed upon all money matters connected with thnt periodical. However. In tbe present instance, perhaps it will answer every purpose if I adopt tlio suggestion of your 'great /Mawd and co7V*daw&, and' do (As Tiandaonis and send a Mp directwhich I do in the shape of a post-omco order for one guinea; or, na your 'entirely dfaintersafed young friend is to have half of what you pet, It will be even better if 1 make the order for two guineas instead, as I do, only you must not look npon this as a precedent. I am afraid Mr. fwncA would have considered that the trouble and expense he was at to have an original design made to your few lines would have been ample recompense. In future send to the editor yeur notion of what you eipect for any contribution, and he will accept or reject accordingly, I daresay.— Tours faithfully, JOHN L%3CH."
The boy, nettled, wanted to send the money back; but Leech's good nature was not to be bafHed, and.he went on to five all sorts of kind encouragement to the young aspirant.
31.—Allhallow Even, or Hallow-een,is tbe Eve of All Saints' Day, and was formerly regarded as—to use a Scotch expression—an «n-cmwzy night. It was the evening on which fairies did good works or played pranks upon unsuspecting and unwary mortals.
Witches rode upon their broomsticks, upborne npon tbe wings of the gale, devising, like the Three Weird Sisters in IfadwWk, woo and misery to man, while spirits left the silent land of shadows and visited once more the "glimpses of themoon."
The ranks of the spirits were not confined to the dead, because tbe souls of the living were supposed to possess the power of separating from tbo material body.
Many and varied were the charms and spells practised by people in their endeavours to look round or under tbe curtain which concealed the distant scene of Futurity. Burning nuts was one way of invoking the aid of unseen powers. As Burns has quaintly put it— " going nwrn;, /rfsnd/y, cmwdra/bHw TopeWwr did conrsns,
To bum Wteir n#s, mid pow
stocks.
An' Aawd 27af Zowsn.
Brand thus describes the burning of the nuts as practised in Ireland:— "Itis a custom in Ireland, when the yonng women would know if their lovers are faithful, to puc three nuts npon the bars of ibe grate, naming the nuts after the lovers. If a nnt cracks or jumps, the lover will prove unfaithful; if it begins to blaze or bum, he has a regard for the person making the trial. If the nuts named afrer the girl and her lover burn together, Lhey will he married."
THE WAYS OF WOMEN IN DAYS OF OLD.
A WOMAN is frequently spoken of in Anglo-Saxon poetry under a word meaning "fi weaver of peace.' Tlie father in those days was absolute master in his family, disposing of his children at will. He sold liis daughters, the price being generally so many heads of cattle. Their feelings were seldom consulted. .
The early marriage-ceremony among the Anglo-Saxons was of a very primitive character: it consisted merely of liand-fasting (hand-fcestmuig), or taking each other by the hand, and pledging love and affection, in the presence of friends and relations. The bridegroom paid the father a sum of money, called a foster-lean, or payment for nourishing.
At a later period, the early custom of espousals was reduced to a regular system, and the lover was required to give a wed, or security for the performance of his contract; hence our word wedding.
When the wedding ceremony became a little more elaborate, the Anglo-Saxon bridegroom put a ring on the maiden's right hand at the espousals, which, at, the marriage, was removed to her left, on the first finger. The father at the same tune delivered the bride's shoe to the bridegroom, and the latter touched her on the head with it, to show his authority. This ceremony is still preserved now in the popular custom of throwing shoes at a newly-married couple.
If a widow married again within a year of her husband s death, she forfeited everything she had received from him— the origin, doubtless, of our feeling that a widow ought to wait a year before marrying again. ,,,,,,
The head of a family in those times was often called hlaf-ord, the origin or source of the bread; his wife, hlaf-dig, the distributor of the bread ; and his servants and retainers, hlaf-cetas, or eaters of the bread. , .
Ladies in Norman times became frequently nobles in their own right, conveying their vast estates by marriage into other families. When married, such a dame occupied a high position in the household, sitting in the place of honour beside her lord at the table, and taking his place when
It was the general custom for the lady of the castle to go to the gate to receive a visitor. It was not considered courteous in her to retire to array herself when he was announced. The knight of La-Tour-Landry urges that "all women should come to receive their friends in the state in which they happen to bo." When a guest departed, the lord and lady of the castle conducted him to the gate.
The word chivalry we owe to the influence of womankind on feudal society, the feeling of devotion to the fair sex was called chevalerie, the duty of the chevalier. The spirit of gallantry had made its way from the South, and the knight looked upon woman as his patron, and considered himself bound to offer himself in her defence. At joust and tournament, the presence of ladies encouraged the knights, who wore their favours (generally a richly embroidered sleeve), and received the prizes from their hands.
Feudal ladies of the higher class were very careful in keeping their inferiors at a respectful distance, and the rules of behaviour were very formal. Ladies and gentlemen when walking out held each other's hands, never going arm-in-arm. . „
The perfumes used by the mediaeval ladies were not of a very refined nature—saffron appears to have been the principal ; and mercers sold frequently " wimples perfumed with saffron." Ladies soon came to be distinguished for extravagance in dress ; and fashions changed with great rapidity. Chaucer's Persone inveighs against the wild extravagance of contemporary fashions in dress.
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