Title:
'Discovery' reports
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FORAMINIFERA
PART I. THE ICE-FREE AREA OF THE FALKLAND ISLANDS AND ADJACENT SEAS
By Edward Heron-Allen, f.r.s., and Arthur Earland, f.r.m.s.
(Plates VI-XVII, text-fig. i)
INTRODUCTORY NOTE
The bottom deposits received from the R.R.S. ' Discovery' and the R.R.S. ' William
Scoresby' cover a very wide area. Apart from gatherings made en route, which are too widely scattered to yield much information except as regards new species contained therein, some of which have been already described by us in the Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society,1 they include detailed surveys of the sea bottom in
(1) the seas surrounding the Falkland Islands,
(2) the South Georgia area,
(3) the South Sandwich, the South Orkneys, the South Shetlands and off the coast of the Antarctic Continent.
The Falkland Islands, being entirely outside the region of ice, form a definite area and constitute the subject of the present report.
THE FALKLAND AREA AND ITS FORAMINIFERA
The Falkland Islands—"Les lies Malouines" of d'Orbigny and the French geographers—are an extensive group consisting of two large and many small islands situated between the 51-53 parallels of S latitude and the 57-61 meridians of W longitude. They stand on the Continental Shelf which here extends for many hundreds of miles from the South American coastline, sweeping out in a broad tongue to include the islands. To the west and north of the group comparatively shallow water extends over an enormous area, but on the south and east of the islands deeper water approaches their shores and separates them from the great Burdwood Bank lying to the south of the islands. This is an outlier of the Continental Shelf and is separated from the mainland and from the Falkland Islands by over 100 miles of deep water. The 500-fathom line envelops both the bank and the islands.
The Falkland Islands are in the sub-Antarctic region, lying between the surface isotherms of 6° and 120 C., and are therefore well outside the northernmost extension of pack-ice. Most of the water passing Cape Horn and flowing up to the Falklands is of
1 On the Pegididae, a new Family of Foraminifera, Vol. xlviii, 1928, pp. 283-99, pis. i-iii, fig. 1. Some new Foraminifera from the South Atlantic, No. 1, Vol. xlix, 1929, pp. 102-8, pis. i-iii: No. 2, Vol. xlix, 1929, PP- 324-34, Pis- i-iv: No. 3, Vol. L, 1930, pp. 38-45, pi. i.
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