PP/GC/CA/278 Copy of a letter from Henry John Temple, third Viscount Palmerston, to Sir.S.Canning, concerning a translation of the treaty of Kainarji, and why the Prussians have stopped aiding the Turkish army, 19 October 1849: contemporary copy
Copy, in the hand of a secretary, of a letter from Henry John Temple, third Viscount Palmerston, Carlton Gardens, London, to Sir Stratford Canning, British ambassador plenipotentiary at Constantinople: he would like Canning to send him a copy of a correct translation from the Turkish of the second article of the treaty of Kainarji.<P> According to the French version that Palmerston has seen, the first two parts of the second article are contradictory on whether [men] should be given up to the country demanding them or whether they can merely be expelled. It is not clear whether one part refers to criminals or to everybody passing from one territory to another. If [men] have to be given up then the choice merely to expel is cancelled out.<P> Did the Prussian officers leave Turkey because they were withdrawn by the Prussian government or because they were sent away by the Turkish ? The rumour is that the Turks sent them away under pressure from the French people in Reschid Pasha's circle. The Turkish army had been well organised under the Prussians and if French instructors are to be substituted it will now have to learn the French method of drilling and tactics and it will take a long time to make up the lost ground. The Prussians, moreover, were not just working with the soldiers but had drawn up plans for the defence of Constantinople which would be worth putting into execution.<P> "The defence of Rome against the French (to say nothing of Sarragossa) shows how a resolute force, even imperfectly disciplined, when protected by walls even old and unskilfully built as defences against cannon, may hold out against a disciplined army furnished with heavy artillery. The example ought not to be thrown away on the Turks, and they should fortify Constantinople on the land side as well as put in order the defences of the Bosphorus. The old walls of Constantinople might well be blended in with a system of more modern defences."<P> 19 Oct 1849: contemporary copy
Two papers
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Sir Stratford Canning, later first Viscount Stratford de Redcliffe, British ambassador extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary at Constantinople
Treaty of Kuchuk Kainarji of 1774: cession by Turkey to Russia the Crimea and south Ukraine; extradition of Russians from Turkish territory
Ottoman empire, Sublime Porte, defence, army
Refugees, exiles, fugitives from Hungary in Turkey
Prussian relations with Turkey
Reschid Mustapha Pasha, alias Reshid Mustafa Pasha, Ottoman Grand Vizier
French relations with Turkey
Papal States: military tactics, siege
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