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APPENDIX D.—JEWISH EDUCATION AT CONSTANTINOPLE. 43
subventioned by tlie Alliance Israelite and the Anglo-Jewish Association. Galata is one of the eastern divisions of Constantinople, and is situated on the bend of the Golden Horn and the Bosphorus. The school-house—in capital sanitary condition—is a large building, several stories high, where, at the time of my visit, I found the boys busily at work in well-ventilated, lofty rooms; their behaviour orderly, and their appearance neat and cleanly. With a view to testing their proficiency I interrogated them on various subjects, and found them generally well able to reply to my questions. For instance, I selected a boy of the first class who gave me a geographical description of the British Isles, including the rivers, mountains, &c., with the greatest precision. He also answered several historical questions in a manner which reflected much credit on the able director, M. Dalem. There were in this class some thirty pupils, in age varying from twelve to fourteen years. The second class consisted of twenty-six pupils, who also answered my questions with great clearness. I requested one to read aloud; and the copy-books of others I examined. The reading was excellent and the writing good. In the third class the ages vary from eight to eleven. One boy read French to me and answered satisfactorily questions in French grammar. Asked how long he had been at school, he replied " two years." I found he had also a good idea of arithmetic and geography, so that in two years he had learnt a great deal. The fourth class, some fifty-four, were all under nine years. Most of them had a fair knowledge of reading, writing, and arithmetic. One boy answered a question of mental arithmetic very promptly. Generally, I may say, the standard of education was excellent, and much attention appeared to be given by the masters to instruction in practical subjects of every-day life, especially those having a relation to commerce and commercial matters, such as the manufacture of materials and natural products. One boy, for instance, described fully the process of making wine ; another, bread, and so on.
From this school boys are sent to be apprenticed to shopkeepers, and the system has been found to answer well.
When a boy has learned as much as is deemed necessary a small premium is paid to enable him to acquire a trade, which he soon masters, and in return is able to command wages for his labour. This system is to be compared to that adopted in the school of the Messieurs Camondo, to which I shall shortly refer.
At Galata the greater part of the pupils receive gratuitous
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