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APPENDIX C.— INDUSTRIAL INSTRUCTION IN BAGDAD. 39
smiths are bound to handicraftsmen in various parts of the town. They work from sunrise to sunset, and earn from a penny to four-pence a day, according to their year of apprenticeship. The whole period of training embraces three years. After this period they earn from sixpence to a shilling a day, and if they work on their own account, they earn much more.
The Mussulman coppersmiths having combined to keep Jews out of their guild, and having refused to receive any of our apprentices, we had some difficulty at first in obtaining a trade master. We succeeded at last in engaging an independent individual to teach the trade in a workshop of our own, and under our direct control. As usually happens, threats of violence were uttered against the master and ourselves, and on one occasion all the Mussulman coppersmiths deliberated upon a plan of keeping up their monopoly. I am happy to state that the local authorities, to whom we submitted our case, promised us every protection in case of emergency, and warned the principal coppersmiths that any interference with us or our work would be visited with the full penalty of the Meanwhile we continued our preparations, rented a shed to be used as a workshop, and ordered all the required to carry on the trade. The action of ^ the authorities had ensured us complete immunity from every kind of obstruction. Within the eight months that this new workshop has been in existence our coppersmith apprentices, now 23 in number, have turned out more than three thousand implements of various shapes and sizes, ^ and weighing in all about four tons. Their workmanship is in every way equal to that of the Mussulman coppersmiths, and the articles made are rapidly disposed of.
The introduction of this branch of industry must therefore be considered a complete success, and having already gained a firm footing in our Community, it will undoubtedly continue to prosper and will eventually procure employment to hundreds of poor families. The good done in this way is incalculable. In this way we check the baneful influences of former helplessness.
Since the introduction of the "apprenticing system" in 1874, the number of learners has been 134, representing a permanent source of income to as many poor families. The apprentices taught since the commencement are as follows: tailors 3, bootmakers 39, weavers 27, carpenters 22, gold and silversmiths 20, coppersmiths 23. Out of this number 15 now work as masters on their own account, 50 are employed as hands,
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