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ROUMANIA.
21
One of my correspondents writes :—■
" Despite of all contradiction by tlie Roumanian authorities, it is indisputable that the new law prohibits and punishes severely the practice of hawking all articles, with the exception of articles of food; 80 to 90 per cent, of the hawkers are Jews, and in consequence of this law, thousands of families who have up to the present time been able to maintain themselves by the practice of hawking are now starving, and are either dependent upon the charity of their co-religionists or compelled to leave the country."
Another correspondent writes:—•
" The state of things in Roumania is very terrible. Not only are the Jews prohibited from dealing in spirits and tobacco and from hawking, but from being brokers, whether on the Bourse or in trade; what is worse, they have been ordered to withdraw from the villages and rural districts, at forty-eight hours' notice into the towns—thus there is no opening practicable in agriculture ; and, to add to all, it is now under discussion to exclude all aliens from the trade guilds; and it is stated that three-fourths of the artisans in Roumania are Jews. Anyhow, if the Jews are to be shut out of all employment in towns and not allowed to do anything in the country, there is nothing but extermination before them.
There is, therefore, clearly no alternative remaining for the unhappy Roumanian Jews but to leave the country; and here, again, a refinement of cruelty, and persecuting spirit of the policy of the Roumanian Government towards them, condemns them to exile, as they are only permitted to seek the means of living in other countries on the condition that they shall not return to their own.
On this subject I addressed a question in the House of Commons last week to the Under-Secretary for Foreign Affairs, and I am still without a reply; but I have since received a further confirmation of my statement from a third correspondent, whose words I quote:—■
" The Jew in Roumania must pay every tax like any other Roumanian, but can, under no circumstances, claim to be provided with a passport when he has to go abroad on business ; all he can get is an emigration certificate (Aus-wanderungschein). Even this has only been sanctioned with great difficulty, after an audience of the King on the subject. Persons provided with these emigration certificates are forbidden, under the severest penalties, to return to Roumania. We are, in a word, treated worse than foreigners; we have all the duties of Roumanians but none of their rights. Our
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