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barren; hence it is that the dispirited and dissatisfied agricultural classes join their equally dissatisfied leaders in making an attack upon the Jews. It has also to be noted that the Jews, just because they do not submit to the levelling process of Russification, become objects of persecution for the higher bureaucrats, who unconsciously join hand with the Nihilists, the Communists, and the brainless multitude, for the purpose of keeping the Jews in a perpetual state of danger.
4. Emigration.—Emigration appears to recommend itself to many Jews in Russia as the panacea for the sufferings which their Jewish fellow-countrymen have to undergo. Hitherto the handicraftsman was permitted to settle in the interior of Russia under the condition that he should follow his mechanical pursuits and refrain from engaging in mercantile undertakings. In numerous instances such a professed mechanic has carried on one or two additional kinds of business. He has opened a shop for the sale of various goods, and has also been the retailer in the sale of spirituous drinks. Many Jews from Poland and Southern Russia have settled in the interior under the protection of Jewish merchants, who as members of the First Guild enjoy ampler privileges. Against these settlers the rod of the persecutor has been raised in recent days. On the part of strict observers of Judaism there is a valid objection against any such settlements in the interior, whereby existing congregations would be dissolved and Jewish families would become isolated from the rest of the Jewish body. Usages which are connected with ceremonials at births, marriages and deaths, or with the recurrence of festivals, &c., &c.. require a gregarious settlement of the members of the Jewish community. Owing to these circumstances the dispersion of the Jews in the interior of Russia has never met with favour on the part of thoughtful Jews who look beyond material interests. But the question of emigration remains the topic to which the Russian Jews are compelled to turn their most anxious attention.
Russo-Jewish publicists continually remind their readers that many of the Russian Jews, notwithstanding their former exclusively commercial pursuits, will have to resort en masse to the cultivation of the soil, as well as to a skilful pursuit of handicrafts. This advice has been largely circulated in the Jewish circles of Russia and will have its practical effect upon the future occupations of Russian Jews. Many thousands of Jewish families have signed declarations, which have been received in'foreign countries, and in which they express their desire to devote themselves to the labours of husbandry. They
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