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class catering for the wants of the rich and supplying the dependent classes with products of skill and ordinary manufacture. The Jew has retained this position even to the present time. He does not injure the population by whom he is surrounded, he does not suck up the resources of farmers, whilst he himself is not permitted to be a farmer ; he is useful to his neighbours even when the injurious "economical" regulations drive him to every subterfuge in order to gain a living. It is acknowledged that his greatest crime is the possession of an amount, of intelligence of which the neighbouring-population is somewhat deficient,—the Jew can read and write, the peasant (the peasant's priest, too,) is illiterate. Hence the outcry that the Jew is eating up the substance of the Christians.
3. Judmophobia.—The instructed portion of the Russian population, having imbibed an antipathy to autocratic tyranny, and having fostered Communism and subversive Nihilism, seeks to sow discontent amongst the impoverished populace. Since the death of Alexander II., when the schemes of the revolutionary party were frustrated, that party has led the common classes against the Jewish residents, in the hope that the people would resent the conduct of the Government in protecting the Jews and in repressing assailants, and would thus aid in keeping up a fermentation and a commotion which must end in weakening the power of the governing section. Merchants to whom Jews have given credit, have during the recent disturbances in Southern Russia striven to annul their debts by destroying the position of their Jewish creditors. Thus it is said that at Elisabethgrad some of the rich Russian tradesmen, who owed money to Jewish purveyors of goods, acted as ringleaders who incited the mob to invade and destroy the homes of the unoffending Jewish inhabitants.
The Press attacks the Jews, because the sensational defamations of the Jewish character help to improve the circulation of a Russian journal. For example, the Novoe Vremya and numerous similar papers derived their principal success (in a commercial point of view) from a continuous number of virulent articles against the Jews. In this dark aspect of things there is one bright point. Russia has still Jewish writers who defend with intelligence and earnestness the endangered position of their unfortunate brethren. Yet if there should be a succession of bad harvests, no intelligence of the most able defenders will succeed in pacifying the overtaxed and unremunerated Russian tiller of the ground. The fields, cultivated by ignorant farmers, appear to become more
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