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APPENDIX D.— CONDITION OF THE JEWS OF SMYRNA. 83
a weekly allowance from the Society Gaboe Tzedakah, under the express condition that they shall not apply to the public for alms. This Society derives its income from contributions made by persons in easy circumstances. But these gifts do not suffice to prevent a deficit which has to be covered by the public purse. The annual expense (35,000 francs) proves excessively heavy, considering how few there are who can afford to render liberal assistance.
2. Young men generally marry at the age of 20, and young women at the age of 16. The great increase of children adds to the difficulties of the prevailing distress. It deserves notice that the young people who have been trained in the Alliance School do not marry in reckless haste, they being taught to act with prudence in this important step of life.
3. On the average there are five children born in each family, at the ratio of three girls and two boys. This disproportion is observable also amongst the other Smyrniotes, and is a phenomenon deserving the attention of physiologists. Account must also be taken of the constant emigration of young men ; many young women remain single, unless married by foreigners. In such case divorces amongst ill-assorted couples are of frequent occurrence.
4. Amongst the Smyrna Jews there are many instances of longevity, especially of males; for it is the care and the anxiety in the life of a mother which tends to affect the number of years. Fifty years may be taken as the average duration of life. If the rules of health were observed everywhere, we would find here a powerful and hardy population. At Smyrna one sees now and then Jewish porters who appear to have the veritable strength of a Hercules.
5. Chronic diseases are comparatively rare amongst the Jews, but there are to be noticed cases of consumption. The prevailing maladies consist in typhus, typhoid and intermittent fevers, and quinsy. Children are especially subject to the last complaint, which in numerous cases is supposed to be attributable to the dampness of the dwelling places in the Jewish quarter, particularly during the rainy season. In some years, but at great intervals, small-pox makes great ravages. Gradually the salutary introduction of vaccination is being favoured amongst our Jewish brethren in Smyrna.
6. Regarded from a pecuniary point of view, the Christian population is better situated than the Jews; this is chiefly owing to the influence which the old-established and richly endowed schools have exercised upon the former. The Greeks and
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