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standi in Court. Some of them have a small practice amongst their co-religionists, as in arbitration cases. Sometimes, too, a litigant will transfer his lawsuit to a Jewish advocate, that the latter may appear in Court for the former, not as a lawyer in the case, but as a party thereto.
They cannot hold the position of teachers in the Government Schools. Nevertheless there is one Jew, Dr. Manuel David, a Roumanian, of Ploeschti, who is a Government Professor of Mathematics. They must serve in the army, but cannot become officers. Extraordinary cases of merit and courage have, however, been sparingly acknowledged.
The Jews have 110 right to hold houses in the towns in their own names, although in many cases they are able to do so. As a matter of law, the Judge before whom the parties to a transfer of house property must go may always refuse his consent when the transferee is a Jew. To obviate such refusals, bribery-brokers are set to work, and the difficulty nearly always disappears. This obstacle may also be surmounted by occupying the house in the name of the transferror. The objections to tins method are that should the transferee ever be minded to get the property transferred in his own name, he is liable to pay transfer v duty twice over. There is also the possibility of the transferror
proving unreliable. In Bucharest, Galatz, and Jassy, it is now becoming less difficult to acquire house property. . The Belgian Consul at Galatz told me that perhaps one in every ten applications by Jews to acquire house property was refused. In villages Jews are not even permitted to reside. In some, however, a few may be found who have probably succceded in bribing the officials. They are not allowed to hold farms.
As an excuse for withholding from the Jews political personal rights, many statements are made. It is said Jews are prohibited from holding land in the villages country because they made a practice of intoxicating ' V peasants, compelling these drunkards to borrow money of them,
and then getting their land mortgaged to them as security ; that officials were sent by the Government to check this evil, but being unable to resist the bribes of the Jews, the practice continued. On making inquiries into the matter, I found this accusation denied by the Jews. In corroboration of their denial, it is to be remembered that licenses to sell spirits are granted by the Local or Government authorities, who have the power to refuse or cancel them in the case of misconduct; further, that mortgaging real property is a public act which necessitates the appearance of the parties concerned before a
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