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The community is also possessed of another building on the same plot of ground. When they have money enough they intend to convert the ground-floor into an industrial school. i. e., a school where boys after leaving the elementary school may be taught some trade, such as tailoring, carpentering, &c. The first floor it is proposed to use as a girls' school. Signor Graziani, who takes a very active part in Jewish affairs in Phiiippopolis, estimated the cost of this double alteration at £200 to £250; £100 of this could be raised in Phiiippopolis. At present there is no school accommodation for the girls. Whilst talking to a little Jewish girl I was struck by her fluency in French. I subsequently learnt that she was the daughter of one of those who could afford to send their daughters to Poman Catholic schools, there to acquire a linguistic proficiency. It would, however, be much better if an equally good education could be received in a Jewish institution. Of the women it may be said that they never assist in business, but attend only to their families, which are usually large enough to occupy much of their time. Men and women marry at the somewhat early age of 17 or 18.
There are two synagogues: one, a large building, was being restored while I was there ; the other, a smaller building, is used in the winter. In this there wras no place allotted for female worshippers. It is not surprising that the Chacham is exceptionally unrefined and ignorant when it is remembered that his salary is but sixteen francs per week.
While at Phiiippopolis I investigated the case of maltreatment which befell the Jewish refugees of Carlova. In the month of June last, when attempting to return from Phiiippopolis to their old homes at Carlova, they were set upon by the Bulgarian inhabitants of that place and driven away. Signor Yeneziani's brother, who accompanied them, used all the influence he could to persuade M. Naidenoff, the President of the Carlova Corporation, to take measures for the safety of the returning Jews. But M. Naidenoff was unable to prevent the maltreatment which befell the Jews on their entry into the town. The latter, smarting under their cruel expulsion, applied for assistance through Signor Graziani to the German and English Commissioners. The German Commissioner, backed up by Mr. Mitchell, C.B., the British Commissioner, applied to Aleko Pasha for a Commission of Inquiry. This request was granted. The evidence obtained under this Commission went to bear out the Jewish version of the affair. The report upon the evidence, however, was unfavourable to

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