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received from various parts of Turkey, that, with a few individual exceptions, unhappily no young men can be found who are fit to become pupils of an institution intended to train them as future teachers in Oriental schools. No young men that might be selected for the purpose would be able to acquire in the existing primary schools a sufficient amount of regular knowledge to allow them to attend with real profit a normal school.
" The primary schools at present at work in Constantinople, Salonica, Smyrna, and in smaller towns, serve only to give the first and insufficient furrowing to ground hitherto uncultivated. The instruction there imparted is necessarily deficient, owing to the difficulties inherent to new institutions; to the scarcity or lack of adequate means; to the need of varied linguistic knowledge ; to the haste of parents to withdraw their children from school and render them available in their own business, or useful in providing for the urgent wants of material life, which begin at an early period in the East.
" It is desired to increase the means of imparting solid instruction, so as to enable the pupils to complete the first three or four years of their educational course, and then to follow finishing studies qualifying them to enter into intellectual or mechanical pursuits according to their intended careers. We would wish to give our schools the position of high schools. But as I have repeatedly stated in my pamphlet ' On the state of the Primary Education of the Jews in the East,' the continual struggle against shortness of means discourages, to some extent, the progressive introduction of improvements, so long as the friends of education are afraid not only of failure, but also of being compelled to shut up the existing schools, as at one time happened in Salonica itself, and in other cities of Turkey. . . .
"I believe I have satisfactorily demonstrated that the unhappy Jewish communities in the East are not possessed of sufficient means to enable them to support and consolidate their schools, and that therefore the benevolent co-operation of their Western co-religionists is indispensable to success.
" In this state of things, the mission of Jewish Associations being that of co-ordinating and directing the impulses of Jewish beneficence, I should consider that the establishment of a normal school in the East is premature and incapable of bearing proper fruit for the present, and that it would be desirable to delay its formation for three, four, or five years. This would give time to the pupils now following their studies to complete their elementary course, and to qualify themselves to partici-
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