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rendered apathetic in consequence of the insufficiency of their emoluments. On the whole, the instruction of Jewish girls is of the most scanty nature ; yet there are some girls' schools where a better knowledge of Hebrew is imparted than is given to Jewish boys in the Talmudical schools.
In the event of a daughter losing her parents in her infancy, there is no orphanage to give her a new home ; but Jewish charity, which is never dormant, supplies the bereaved child with voluntary or paid foster-parents until she is about eight years old ; at that age, or younger even, she is put into service, and has to make her way as well as she can by her own exertions. It scarcely needs to be observed that the subject of the education of Jewish women in Russia, demands fuller details than can be given in the few pages of this Report. Provisions to protect the ill-taught and the uninstructed are awaiting the intervention of Jewish philanthropists. The pen refrains from repeating stories of undeserved troubles. Let others take up the subject and engage in the practical study of rendering the Russian Jewish poor of both sexes self-helping by a course of systematic training. The misfortunes befalling those who are not well cared-for demands more than passing attention; and the hand of the organiser is wanting here, as in numerous other Jewish institutions of Russia.
The principal source of the great amount of wretchedness—• an evil which surpasses every other remediable calamity—-consists in the overcrowded state of the Jewish population. The Jew, not being allowed to choose his residence in towns where trade might prosper, becomes a victim of failings and miseries, for which, in many cases, he is most inconsiderately blamed. In ill-built houses where several families are pent up together, and in the fetid atmosphere of a miserable home, the Jewish poor do not learn to enjoy the advantages of cleanliness or of any other pleasant externals. Infirmities and impurities of every possible description are freely communicated; and the prevailing discomforts engender no end of strife and quarrels. Bodies and minds are crippled, and Grod's world becomes exceedingly narrow. The young Jew in the country town presents at an early age an enfeebled and careworn appearance. Yet the absence of order, which characterises his exterior and all his surroundings, is not an innate fault of the individual, and is not acquired by perverse carelessness. It forms part of those discouraging influences to which his life is exposed in the midst of perpetual afflictions.
The law, framed without taking into account the withering effect of constant humiliation, seems to assume that the Jew
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