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Liegnitz, Berlin, and other German cities, by the branch of the Alliance in Brussels, and mainly by the Central Committee of the Alliance at Paris—to relieve the distress of numerous Jewish orphans and other necessitous Jewish persons who came to Germany from Western B-ussia. These reports describe the amount of care bestowed on the indigent children and adults, and the results attending the charitable efforts of the several Committees. During my stay in East Prussia I had before me some documentary evidence, showing that the wants of the Russian applicants had been studied with sedulous attention, and that the utmost vigilance had become needful, lest the existing benevolent arrangements should attract an excessive influx of petitioners.
The Russian orphans whom the Alliance Israelite sent to schools or placed with foster-parents, as also the lads and girls who were apprenticed to various trades, had justified, in almost every instance, the interest that had been taken in them to promote their comfort and future usefulness.
II.—The Social Communal and Educational Position of the Jews in Western Russia, and the Question of their Removal into the Interior.
The condition of the Russian Jews has considerably deteriorated through the events of the last ten years. The Government, in seeking to stamp out the revolutionary enterprises of the Poles, resorted to vigorous measures with a view of Russianising the various nationalities in parts of the former kingdom of Poland, and in other provinces. As the Russian language is to be the sign or the public avowal of loyalty, every Russian subject is expected to employ it as the medium of official and even of private transactions. The schools are to be conducted by masters who speak Russian, and school-books are only admissible if written in the Russian language. The majority of the Jews, whose vernacular is a jargon of old German intermixed with a variety of foreign words, have hitherto been just as unable to renounce the language used at their firesides and in their mutual intercourse, as they are loth to abandon the fashion of their inconvenient and unbecoming attire. The national law, intended to overcome this attachment of the Jews to their domestic habits, has fallen with its dead weight upon Jewish elementary schools, which have been reduced from the small
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