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colonial produce or manufactures; and it confines, moreover, this truly liberal concession only to the Israelites, who are already established, to the exclusion of their own parents or children, who are driven from the home, the property, and the business of their deceased fathers, and are deprived of the right of dwelling in the town or village where their parents dwelt, and it exposes them to the inevitable privations of the place of refuge, where all the Jewish subjects are huddled together, and reduces them all to the utmost misery. To this we may add, that even this miserable concession—granting to those who were first established in the communes the right of remaining during their lives—has been recently taken away in many villages of the low countries. The greater number of the Jewish families of Belgrad, reduced from 450—the number before the passing of the exceptional laws—to 200, live on alms. The Servian Jews have been converted into beggars by the legislation which has ruined and driven them from their homes, and the Christian population of the low country are now the victims of the extortion of Christian tradesmen, and complain of it with reason.
Have these laws, unheard of in the rest of Europe, been passed in the interest of the country ? We would beg leave to cite on this point the opinion of a competent and impartial authority. Mr. Longworth, the English Consul-General, says in his despatch to Lord Stanley of the 14th March, 1867 :—" It is as much (I told M. Garaschnin) in the interest of the Servian people as it is in that of the Jews that these latter should be allowed to trade freely in the interior. The government is ruining the trade of the country by imposing these restrictions, and in shutting the door against all competition. It is, by so doing, creating a bad commercial system, for whilst the Servian tradesmen like long credit with enormous profits, the Jews prefer quick returns, and are contented with small gains. But neither this reasoning nor an appeal to the feelings of humanity produced the smallest result. The influence of the Torgowatz, that is, of the merchants of Belgrad and of the small towns in the interior, is, as I have already pointed out, all powerful, and has become yet more so by force of the recent events." In the month of September, 1869, the diplomatic agents of Austrian-Hungary, of England, of France, and of Italy, were entrusted by their Governments to present to the Prince Regent a collective note, in which these powers " observe with regret that a recent Act ofthe Legislature, whilst proclaiming the principle of the equality of citizens, has formally maintained the previous Acts, by virtue of which the Servian subjects professing the Jewish religion
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