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appendix c.—the jews of constantinople. 67
adhere to their religious rites, a special saloon being assigned to them which they use both for the performance of divine service and as a refectory. A paid Jewish overseer looks after these students, and directs them in their conformity to religious observances. They get their daily rations from Jewish tradespeople in exchange for vouchers which are issued to them by a Government officer. Additions to their supply of food are made from the fund of the gabetta. On Sabbaths and Jewish festivals they are dispensed from attending the classes. I was informed that this concession does not at all interfere with the progress in their studies, and that owing to their aptitude they, like Jewish students in other countries, are held in good estimation by their teachers. The several students are bound to remain in Government service throughout their lives, unless they become incapacitated by some mischance.
After a study of three years they enter the Faculty of Medicine, where they continue to enjoy the same privileges which have just been described, and henceforth they draw a stipend of 20 francs a month. The course of their studies extends over six years. On passing the final examination such a student takes the degree of M.D., and holds the rank of captain in the army. His monthly pay begins with £l4<.
The Jewish students are under great obligations to M. Gold-schmidt, the President of the Alliance Israelite, to Baron de Hirsch, and to Messrs. Rothschild of Paris. These gentlemen have liberally presented them with French works on the science of medicine, and have thereby considerably aided them in their progress. It was pleasant to hear some of the young men express their warm gratitude for such well-timed acts of kindness.
In the Civil Department of medical studies the admission to the lectures is invariably gratis, but here the students are not in receipt of any such grants as fall to the lot of their colleagues in the Military School. There are ten Jews in the Lower School and twenty-five in the Civil Faculty of Medicine.
VIII.—Additional Institutions.
At the Imperial Lyceum, which is open for the sons, of wealthier families, high fees are charged, which vary for
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