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appendix c.—the jews of constantinople.
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grants are made to these schools out of the funds of ^ the communal gabella, and further slight contributions are received out of the offerings made at the synagogues in the various districts. In the Talmud Torah schools no modern language is taught. When the boys quit the school they are only tit for the lowest and most unremunerative menial work in the public thoroughfares, unless they be fortunate enough to be admitted into an Alliance School, or into the well-managed school founded by the Camondo family and directed by Mr. Bloch.
In connection with the subject of education I may advert to the six "Jeshiboth," by which term one generally designates " Jewish Colleges." It is known that this meaning does not well apply to the Jeshiboth in Constantinople. I visited one of these institutions. It was attended by dye elderly men and one young man who, like their colleagues in kindred local establishments, spend their whole time in reading portions of the Mishnah in a very perfunctory manner, and merely as a religious exercise, without the remotest intention of advancing in Rabbinical knowledge. The book-shelves were fairly stocked with Talmudical works, but these, as I was told, were not much used.
The Jeshiboth are supported by special bequests and some small charitable grants. It is possible that one day these humble institutions may be utilized for the furtherance of bond fide studies.
IV—Alliance Schools foe Boys and Girls.
The Alliance Schools present a bright and hopeful feature in the gloomy aspect of Jewish life in Constantinople. Much is being done there; considerably more is necessary even within a moderate compass. The Alliance has successively opened seven schools, which last year were attended by 1,000 boys, and six schools wherein instruction was given to 1.200 girls. In these establishments the children are instructed through the medium of the French language. The teachers are strict disciplinarians, and appear animated by a desire to maintain the good reputation of their schools. The Rabbis, as the indigenous Hebrew-masters are styled, give their lessons fairly well through the medium of Judseo-Spanish. Some of these Rabbis have fallen in with the able method of the headmasters ; but there are others who are still incapable of helping
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