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no arrangements for decency. Flogging is frequently resorted to, even the women being subjected to it, whilst the soldiers are allowed to practise the greatest cruelties on the exiles. Recently a sick man was compelled to stand up by the soldiers lifting him up by the hair of liis head. The horrors of the exile may easily be imagined when I tell you that in some parts, for three months of the year it is always night, during which the average temperature is thirteen degrees below freezing point. Letters take six months to reach Sredne-Kolynsk, and the postman comes but three times a year. And it must be remembered that people are exiled to these places merely on grounds of suspicion, or because they hold what in Russia are considered dangerous opinions. I have carefully examined the authorities on which I make these statements, and if any one wishes to verify them, I will give the papers and references. I will refer for a moment to one other country, and that is Rou-mania. Here out of a total population of 300,000 Jews, only sixty persons have been granted Roumanian citizenship since 1878, though the Berlin treaty stipulated that naturalisation was to be granted to the Jews en masse. Several laws against aliens (and all Jews are classed as aliens) in violation of the stipulations of the Treaty of Berlin have been passed, and a Bill deposited before the Chamber by the present Government on promotion in the army contains a clause providing that no one can be a sub-lieutenant if he be not a naturalised Roumanian. And now I come to the second head of our work, which is the bright side of the picture. We do all that we can in all parts of the world, especially in the East, to promote education, because we believe that by giving men and women an education we are giving them the means of obtaining a livelihood. (Hear, hear.) In conjunction with the Alliance, we have succeeded in establishing and maintaining 20 schools in different parts of the world. We have schools at Bagdad, Beyrout, Bombay, Bottuschani, Broussa, Bucharest, Constantinople, Damascus, Fez, Haifa, Jassy, Jerusalem, Mogador, Philippopolis, Salonica, Smyrna, Tetuan, and in several other smaller cities ; and the limit of our contributions is only regulated by the limit of our purse. We are urged to give larger sums where assistance is well deserved, and to establish schools in places' where it would be very desirable for them to be established ; and it is for this reason that the Council are anxious to receive additional support. With regard to technical education, my relative, Col. Croldsmid, by helping to start a technical school in Jerusalem, did much good, and we are desirous of enlarging the sphere of usefulness of that and kindred schools. (Hear, hear.) I now come to the last word of my appeal to you to-day. I come to the financial question, and I ask you to consider how we stand ? The Rev. Mr. Lowy, who for several years conducted with unexampled energy and ability—(hear, hear)—the business of the Association, retired last year on account of advancing age. It then became necessary to rearrange the staff. This we did, and we economised in every
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