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crowded by poor Jews, and the poverty of the inhabitants increased from day to day. To make matters worse, such Jews were sent, as in Russia, by simple administrative order of the police from town to town, and if any workmen came to the larger towns, as, e.g., Bucharest, or Jassy, the police took care to send them back to places where they could only live in misery and poverty.
Little, however, transpires abroad. Few dare to write and to expose the wrongs the Jews suffer, and especially those wrongs to which reference has been made, and which have been inflicted upon them in consequence of the withdrawal of protection.
The schools are still mostly closed to the Jews, and technical education is made impossible. Diplomas of chemists, lawyers, etc., are still granted by the University to the successful Jewisli students, but such grant is a mere mockery ; the certificates cannot be made use of, as no Jew is permitted to practise the profession he has studied.
The present Government may be perhaps a little more favourably inclined towards the Jews. But the spirit of intolerance, nay, of inhumanity, is far from showing any abatement in its virulence.
The situation of the Jews of Roumania, hedged in as they are on all sides by oppressive laws, intolerance, and barbarism, thus appears almost hopeless.
This serious situation is reflected in the social status of the Jews themselves. A Jewish society cannot obtain recognition as a legal entity, it cannot receive legacies, and thus cannot be founded on a firm and stable basis. Jewish societies (like the Zion or now the Bene-berith) have consequently proved to be of very doubtful benefit to the Jewish question at large. It scarcely seems worth while, therefore, to encourage their existence. The only efforts worth making are those that tend to promote education, and to inspire confidence and self-respect.
There are a few such societies in Roumania, prominent among them the society " Barasch," which has for its object the study of the history of the Jews in Roumania. Only by
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