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standing its obviously innocent character, Baron de Hirsch was prevented from carrying into effect liis large and liberal project for the benefit of his Russian co-religionists. Only one gratifying incident in the history of the Jews of Russia in the past year can be placed on record. It is the brilliant speech delivered in September last by the Archbishop Nicanor in the Cathedral of Odessa, before a large and influential audience. His noble defence of the Jews, which created a deep impression throughout Russia, merits grateful recognition at the hands of the entire Jewish race.
The condition of the Jews in Roumania continues to be one of helpless resignation to oppressive laws, vexatious ordinances, and arbitrary persecutions.
These form an almost endless list, and though the present Government has not added any new item to it, they constitute a dead weight which presses more and more heavily upon the Jews of that unhappy country.
In order to substantiate the foregoing statements, a few of those laws and ordinances may be mentioned, which date back to the last year of the Bratiano Government, laws that have not been repealed and are in full force. They will, at the same time, throw some light upon the question of the Austro-Roumanian commercial treaty.
First, there is the law concerning vagrants, which term has been construed to mean men without a homestead, or without obvious means of maintenance, or without papers of legitimation, or newly arrived, or whatever the prefect, the mayor, or their subordinate sbirris may choose to understand. Such men are not allowed to live or to settle in the villages. One would think that if a man was born in a village, had been enrolled in the contingent of the army sent by the village, had served
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