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The exceptional laws against the Jews are being carried out in Russia with increasing harshness, especially with respect to the limitation of the number of Jewish scholars at higher schools and universities. Jewish students can henceforth form only S per cent, of the total number, even in places where the Jewish population is as high as / 5 per cent, of the entire number of inhabitants, and where the Jewish scholars, have hitherto been proportional in number to the Jewish population. The two principal provisional decrees of General Ignatieff are still in force. Under these decrees Jews are prohibited from holding farms or acting as agricultural administrators, and those Jews who inhabit villages are not permitted to migrate to rural districts. This decree is stretched to such an extent that Jews often find it difficult to remove from one house to another in the same village. A new regulation, injurious to the prospects of Jewish lawyers, has been put into operation, and fresh difficulties have been imposed on foreign Jews who, for business or other purposes, desire to reside even temporarily within the Empire. The law forbidding native Jews to take up their abode within a certain distance from the frontier has been applied with painful frequency, and has resulted in the expulsion of hundreds of families, many of which had resided in the prohibited areas for several generations.
The Council note with regret that the philanthropic project of Baron de Hirsch to raise the intellectual status of the Russian Jews, by means of an Education Endowment Fund of many millions of francs, has fallen through, the Government of Russia having refused its sanction to the scheme. It is difficult to understand the action of the Russian Government in this matter. The scheme proposed by Baron de Hirsch, and intended to be carried out with almost unexampled generosity, was one in every way beneficial to the Jewish Community in Russia, and seemed eminently calculated to benefit the Community at large. Yet, notwith-
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