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change for the better has taken place in the situation of the Jews either in Russia or in Roumania.
With regard to Russia, it is unfortunately the fact that no useful action can be taken by the Jews in Western Europe owing to the susceptibilities of the Russian Government with respect to foreign interference. The Council feel that any representation to the Russian Government, with the object of mitigating the severity of the exceptional laws against the Jews, can be but futile or even prejudicial. At the same time the Council are ever watchful of the condition of the Russian Jews, and of all circumstances affecting them, and continue to collect important evidence concerning them for use whenever an opportunity shall arise. Circumstances, more or less similar, have led the Council to adopt the same attitude in the case of Roumania, but in that country they are fortunately able to exercise some beneficial influence in educational matters.
The effective services of the Council were, as has already been stated, employed on several occasions on behalf of Jews in the dominions of the Sultan of Turkey, of the Shah of Persia, and of the Sultan of Morocco. Under the rule of His Imperial Majesty the Sultan Abdul Hamid, the Jews are entitled to full liberty and protection, and the Council hope that the occurrences in places remote from the seat of Government which called for their intervention will prove to be exceptional. The condition and requirements of the Jews in Turkey, and especially of those in Constantinople, are described by the Rev. A. Lciwy, who visited the East during last summer (see Appendix C). The contents of that Report furnish a basis for future deliberations of the Council. The Council have reason to expect a permanent improvement in the condition of the Jews in Persia, as a consequence of the visit of the Shah to this country. During this visit an influential deputation waited upon His Majesty, and elicited a favourable response to their representations. It will be observed from events reported under the heading of Morocco that a slight improvement has taken place in the conditions of Jews in that country, who were enabled to approach the
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