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countervail these improper and baneful proceedings, we, as Jews, are bound to use every exertion and to make every sacrifice.
This great work of Jewish education it is that the Alliance Israelite of Paris, and we, the Anglo-Jewish Association, together with kindred bodies in other centres, are striving to accomplish. Often have we to surmount the prejudices of the Jews themselves, in regions where oppression has forced upon them a separatism which has grown to be regarded by them as essential to the preservation of Judaism, and where every description of secular instruction is looked upon as a dangerous inroad. Often have we to come in contact with the repressive authorities of States, which view with unfavourable eyes any measure tending to advance and to elevate the condition of the Jews; but we are outliving all these obstacles. The rabbis and elders become convinced that Judaism can flourish more in light than in darkness, and unfriendly Governments are forced to confess that Jews properly educated and employed are less a burden to the State than those left in ignorance and enforced idleness. Thus, thanks to our joint and persistent labours, wherever we have planted our schools, the Jews arc rising in the estimation of their fellow-citizens and in their general condition, and they are feeling more happy, because more independent and more respected.
There arc, at the present time, about seventy such schools, containing upwards of 10,000 pupils, of whom about two-thirds are males and one-third females. These schools are mostly managed by Local Committees under the supervision of very superior travelling inspectors. Where possible, the children pay a small fee, but the poverty in most regions is such that the education is more often gratuitous; while, in very many instances, the children have to be fed and partially clothed. Here and there, as in Salonica, Smyrna and Constantinople a few of the leading Jewish residents make laudable efforts and great pecuniary and personal sacrifices towards maintaining the schools; but naturally in all, the Alliance or the Anglo-Jewish Association, or both, have to lend their experience and often to find a considerable portion of the expenses.
The work of apprenticeship is a very valuable feature in most of these establishments, and conduces probably more than anything else to raise the character of the Jewish youth. Large numbers of our pupils have attained positions of independence, and so great has been the success of the movement, that many communities, especially in Eastern Europe, have
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