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seventeenth annual report.
million there, under very favoured circumstances, as already stated.
In Spain, with the exception of about 1,200 in the British Settlement of Gibraltar, it may be said that there are now no indigenous Jews. In Madrid and a very few of the larger towns there are isolated foreign Jews, known as such, and carrying on their business, who are in no way molested; and it may safely be asserted that if others were to think fit to settle in the country no sort of impediment would be offered to them in the exercise of their religion.
In Portugal Jews have been allowed to reside since the early part of the present century. There are small synagogues in two or three towns, but their total number does not exceed a few hundreds, principally in Lisbon, and all enjoying entire toleration. There are others in the islands belonging to both these powers, as well as the strange sect of the Chuctos in Majorca, descendants of the Marranos, or New Christians, only semi-converted.
We now come to the three countries of Europe where the lot of the Jews is the most favoured, and where in fact nothing is left to be desired by them, Italy, France, and England, of which consequently we need say but little.
Italy.—Italy has from 40,000 to 45,000 Jews, principally in the north, especially in Piedmont. In what was, the kingdom of Naples and Sicily, the Spanish Government cleared the country of them, and there are only a few foreign, or North Italian Jews, who have mostly arrived since the new regime of liberty, to be found in these southern territories. In the Central States, and under the Popes, Jews always existed, though throughout the whole Peninsula they were, till a couple of generations ago, regarded as aliens, generally confined to Ghettos, and subjected to much bad treatment and numerous insults. At present there is no semblance of distinction between the Jews of Italy and the rest of the population, and in every department of the state they are to be found, many of them achieving the highest positions.
France.—In France there are now supposed to be between 70,000 and 80,000 Jews, of whom nearly 50,000 are in Paris, and the rest chiefly in the seven or eight largest cities of the Republic. About 40,000 were, to their infinite sorrow, transferred to Germany with Alsace and Lorraine; but the Jewish population of France steadily increases. A hundred years ago, when their residence in the country was hardly acknow-
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