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as a valuable element in their country, to which, they are so warmly attached; but they require to exercise a large amount of patience, constancy and tact in order to conquer and secure the respect and recognition of their fellow-citizens.
Switzerland.—Switzerland contains about 8,000 Jews in the full enjoyment of their liberty. They are mostly traders and artisans, in a position above poverty, and many are in a condition of ease, and even of opulence.
Belgium.'—In Belgium, so long under Spanish rule, the Inquisition swept off the Jews in the 16th century, and though there is now the most ample freedom in that country, only some 6,000 are to be found there; some of these have, however, attained a high position.
Holland,—Holland from the time of its hard-gained emancipation was ever a land of full toleration, and the outcasts from Spain and Portugal flocked thither in numbers, occupying a very high position. Many too came in from Germany, and there are now in this little kingdom about 80,000 to 90,000 Jews, about half of whom are in Amsterdam. There are among them many very distinguished men, and many occupying most honourable posts; but there is a vast amount of poverty, and though there is no sort of legal distinction or barrier, the social position of the Jews in Holland is hardly yet one of entire equality.
Denmark, Sweden and Norway.—In Denmark there are 4,000 or 5,000 Jews, chiefly in Copenhagen, some of whom are of the Spanish rite, who till the beginning of the present century were the only ones allowed to settle. They are subject to no sort of disability, and hold a very respectable position.
There are but 3,000 Jews or thereabouts in Sweden, from which country they were excluded up to the early part of this century. They are in all ways on an equality with the rest of the population.
Norway was the last state in Europe which prohibited the settlement of Jews, having only permitted it within the last 50 years. There are only a few hundreds living there, but those are on a perfect equality with the rest.
Spain and Portugal.—Two other countries there are in Western Europe where there is hardly any Jewish population, Spain and Portugal, from both of which States the Jews were banished at the end of the fifteenth century, there having been, a couple of hundred years before, probably a
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