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appendix b.—jews in their various habitations. 57
this rabbi receives is little less than servile ; the faith which his name inspires is proved by the contributions which are offered to him by the multitudes of poor Jews from far and wide, by means of which he is possessed of considerable revenues, and enabled to live in almost regal state. His spiritual intercession is sought on every side, and liberally paid for; and his influence extends over a considerable area. His uncle, who holds his " Court," as it is called, at Husiatyn, also in Bukowina, on the Russian frontier, is hardly less powerful, and many minor rabbis also enjoy a large amount of influence and support from their faithful but ignorant flocks, very much to the detriment of enlightenment and progress.
In these regions we find boys of twelve and fourteen, with all the youth crushed out of them in the Hedarim and the Yeshiboth, but learned Talmudists—very doctors in the law ; and here the Christian traveller, arriving by the train on the Sabbath or on a holiday, looks in vain for a conveyance to transport him across the two or three miles of deep mud which separate the railway-station from the town, unless he is fortunate enough to secure the springless cart of a peasant. But even here the inroads of modern ideas are making themselves felt; a Reform party is generally to be found in every large town, and men with the cut-away paletot and tall hat are found side by side with those with the long gabardine and low fur cap, and those with close-cut hair and shaven chin among others with the drooping " peoth " and flowing beard, each apparently tolerant of the others' peculiarities. Unfortunately it is not, as a rule, to the rational and commendable conformity of costume and outward manner to that of the rest of the world that these reforms limit themselves, and too often an utter disregard of all the essential and traditional observances of Judaism follows in the wake of the discarding of the outward and strange signs which form so great a barrier to advancement, which intensify prejudice, and which can form no part of religion.
In Hungary there is probably a greater amount of anti-Semitism than in any other portion of the Austrian Empire, and from time to time the absurd but terrible blood accusations are brought forward to incite the population against the Jews. It is probable that trade jealousy may have much to do with this, since the Jews in this kingdom are, on the whole, a flourishing and influential body, though, as usual, burdened with a large number of poor.
Germany.—Let us now turn to the German Empire, with
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