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of whose complicity in corjwre there can at most be but an assumption, and certainly no sort of proof.
No doubt here also the education of the Jews, which has hitherto unfortunately been much neglected, will be the greatest factor in raising their condition; but, until the unnatural fabric of the Russian Government shall have undergone an entire change, it can hardly be hoped that the Jews will be put into possession of that liberty which may be considered the birthright of humanity.
Austria-Hungary.—We now pass into Austria-Hungary, the country which, next to Russia, includes the largest number of Jews, namely, from one and three-quarters to two millions. Of these there are about 600,000 in Hungary, about 500,000 in Galicia, about 300,000 in Bohemia, and the rest in Austria proper and the remainder of the empire, somewhere near 100,000 being in Vienna itself, and about 80,000 in Pesth.
Until thirty or forty years ago the condition of the Jews in Austria differed but little from their actual state in Russia, but the liberal regime has happily led to their entire emancipation : and, though still labouring under certain social disadvantages, they have become a power which it depends mainly on themselves to work out for good. Nevertheless, in Galicia and in the remote provinces of the Empire there is still great ignorance, and it will require a vast amount of education to wipe off from this population the peculiarities engendered by long ages of persecution.
In the territory which occupies the greater part of Galicia, Bukovina, the North-west of Moldavia, and the South-west of Russia, the domestic life of the Jews can best be studied. Closely packed, forming in many towns and districts the numerical strength of the whole population, and pervaded by the same traditional habits and observances as were current in the Middle Ages, peculiarities are found which are quite unknown to the more favoured Jews of Western Europe. Here we find the Hassidim, a large body, having about two centuries of existence, with their mixture of rampant, demonstrative piety and devotion to their religious chiefs, to whom they frequently attribute mystic qualifications, and to whom they accord an homage quite inconsistent with the usual practice of the Jews. In Sadagora, not far from Czernowitz, resides the noted Rabbi Friedmann, the successor of his equally renowned father, who, immigrating from Russia some sixty years ago, acquired the reputation of being a " Baal Shem," or worker of miracles. The homage which
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