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mechanics, and where all sorts of machinery are made and repaired, is one of the best things of its kind to be seen anywhere, and is far more than self-supporting. There are few provinces, even in Russia in Asia, where some Jews may not be found, and even among the tribes of the Caucasus are some thousands of Jews of uncertain origin, speaking Tartar and conforming to the wild lives of those by whom they are surrounded. There are, however, many Governments in which no Jews have any legal right to settle at all; and all foreign Jews travelling in Russia are liable to be sent out of the country at a few hours' notice, which often happens.
Here again this unhappy state of things, which dooms the great bulk of the Jews to a state of intense poverty and misery, is not caused by any antipathy on the part of the rest of the population. The Russian Moujik, on the contrary, is generally the good friend of the poor Jew, who is in many ways very useful to him; in fact, in those provinces of Russia where the Jewish population is most dense, as in the case in Roumania, almost the whole of the petty commerce is in their hands, and there are hardly any other artizans or dealers to be found; thus, were the Jews to be suddenly removed, existence would be hardly possible to the rest of the population. The oppression emanates from the Government, which dislikes their solidarity (which, however its action principally conduces to intensify), and the trading classes are jealous of the success induced by their superior industry, intelligence, and sobriety. Both here, and in Roumania, the two salient causes of complaint against the Jews were, firstly, that they exercised usury; and, secondly, that they encouraged intemperance by keeping low drinking shanties, where they sold bad spirits and demoralised the peasantry. There may have been some degree of truth in these assertions, but in both countries the landed proprietors are grossly improvident, and let their land go to ruin, and the small tenants are as a rule penniless, so that in neither case is there much security which can be offered for any loan which may be needed, and the Christian, when he has any money to lend, is fully as exorbitant in his terms as the Jew. As for the dram-shops and the adulterated liquors, it is an ascertained fact that in the places where licenses have been taken away from, or refused to, the Jews, neither has sobriety in any way advanced, nor has the drink improved in quality. Besides, it is an universally-admitted axiom that laws should deal with individual delinquents, and not with whole classes,
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