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appendix b.—jews in their various habitations. 51
years must pass before we can hope to realise so happy a state of things, and in the meantime it is our duty to watch that all possible means of education shall be maintained and diffused among the Roumanian Jews as widely as possible. It may be hoped also that the recent change in the Roumanian Ministry may benefit the position of the Jews. At the present time there is a continuous stream of emigration from many of the larger towns, especially from Jassy.
Russia.—From Roumania we pass to Russia, where far more than a third of the Jews of the whole world are settled under conditions only less sad than those of their co-religionists in Roumania. The Jewish population of Russia is variously estimated at from three to four millions, but it certainly far exceeds three millions, of whom the great majority inhabit the ex-kingdom of Poland, taken in its widest sense, including Lithuania, Bessarabia, the whole of South-Western or Little Russia; in fact, from the confines of Prussia and Austria to the Volga, and from St. Petersburg (where there are comparatively few) to the Black Sea. There are many also in the Baltic provinces, taken over from the Teutonic knights in the last century ; and a few in Finland, as well as some in the Crimea; but in this peninsula the greater number are Karaites, an ancient Jewish sect who reject the authority of the -Talmud, and have special traditions of their own, possibly numbering some fifteen or eighteen thousand in the whole world, of whom three-quarters live under the Russian sceptre. These Karaites are a thriving and intelligent population, but have never been in friendly relationship with the other Jews. They enjoy entire protection from the Government, which is apt to vaunt its thorough toleration of its ten or twelve thousand Karaite subjects as a set-off against its persistent oppression of its 3,000,000 or 4,000,000 other Jews. It is, perhaps, only a consistent part of the Russian Conservative autocracy to refuse to the Jews that equality which many States, where a far higher degree of civilisation and education exists, have only conceded within the last forty years. It must be borne in mind that it is but in the present generation that serfdom has been abolished in Russia, and that the Government is still an unmitigated absolutism. With more honesty, however, than is exhibited by the Government of Roumania, the Jews of Russia are mentioned as such in the various ordinances and special laws which restrict them. They are not massed under the general name of foreigners, neither are they considered as such by the law. But though citizens, as being born in Russia, from the mere circumstance
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