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strengthened the walls of the town. There appears, however, to have been but one gate on the landward side, the Bar Q ate ; and that on the water side the defences partly depended on a series of strong buildings, either occupied as palaces or used for commercial purposes. The other gates were afterwards constructed as they were required &r the convenience of the inhabitants.
For some centuries after this date Southampton enjoyed a large proportion of regal notice and favour, whilst its municipal dignity, its commercial importance and prosperty advanced with the improvement of its military defences and the restoration of its religious observances. TJnder Henry II. it received its charter of incorporation, which was afterwards confirmed by Richard I., John, Edward II. and III., and Henry IY-, V. and VI.
Henry II. landed here in 1174, on his return from France, after being brought safely through a violent storm, in which he is said to have given ^ striking evidence of pious submission to the Divine Will. This was shortly before his penance at the tomb of Becket, on which some historians have been so severe, writing as for party and effect, and apparently incapable _ of appreciating the strong and varied influences ^ which must have operated on such a mind as Henry's. In 1186 he again landed here with Queen Eleanor, whom he shortly afterwards confined a second time in prison, with that impulsiveness and unaccountable inconsistency which marked his character.
John seems to have been greatly attached to this town, and on his accession to the throne he farmed the customs not only of their own port, but also of Portsmouth, and the neighbouring places, to the burgesses of Southampton, on condition of an annual payment of f 200 sterling. This was the great step towards securing the extensive maritime jurisdiction so long possessed by Southampton, extending from Langatono
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