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This Roman station, or fortress, was called Clausen-turn. From it a Roman Road proceeded northward to Winchester (Yenta Belgarum), another eastward to Chichester (Regnum) ; and from the Winchester road at the head to the tidal estuary of the Itchen a third road, crossing the river at Wood Mill, struck off westward and its course may still be traced in the road called Burgess Street, and further westward at Nursling and Tachbury Mount.
The Romans in all probability kept up this fortress till they left our land about A.D. 411, and after this there is little doubt but that it was occupied by the native Britons, until its destruction about a century later in some of the Saxon raids.
From the end of the Roman occupation we find no "distinct mention of the town till the 9th century, but the name of the Shire, which was derived from that of the town occurs in the English Chronicle under A,D. 755 when Cyne-wulf and the Saxon Witan deprived Sigebryht of his kingdom, except Hantunscire. But the town must have been important before it could hav-3 given its name to the Shire.
The name of the town thus passed on to the Shire was Ham-tun, a name purely English. Ham is the word home, and tun means an anclosure.
The town itself is first mentioned in the English Chronicle under 837, and iEthelwulf of Wessex in 840 dates from the royal vill of Hamtun. The names Hamtun, Ha an tun, Heantun and Hamtone occur till about 962 when the prefix South is met with, after which the name Suth-hamtune or Suthamtun becomes frequent.
It is probable therefore that the town rose to importance early in the English settlement and that here the conquerors formed their ham-tun which gave its name to the district round; that the name Suth-hamtun became known in the tenth century, the prefix being added
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