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THE DAWN OF HISTORY IN SOUTHAMPTON.
is very evident that to accomplish this feat it was in no way necessary to conquer the country round Colchester on the north of the Thames, especially without first subduing Winchester. The description of the fighting- in the marshes and forests applies exactly to the conditions which existed in the Antona estuary and the rivers Test and Itchen. If you allow Winchester to have been the Camulodunum referred to, all difficulties vanish. The detached coloured space on the the map on the north of the Thames would then be transferred to the large vacant space shown on the south, including nearly the whole of Hampshire,'and Britannia Prima would be complete. In conclusion, permit me to say that, on an occasion like this, it is possible to deal only with the most salient points, but I am satisfied that a closer investigation will show that the confusion which has existed for so many hundred years has been due to the mixing up of two towns, which, at one time bore similar names. One of them being subsequently altered, as was no uncommon occurrence, the other gathered round itself the history and traditions of both. In no other way can the absence of allusion to such an important place as Winchester and its natural port, Southampton, be satisfactorily accounted for. When once the primary error of the confusion of the two towns had been made the historians invented all sorts of hypotheses to account for the evident inconsistencies, and even impossibilties in the narrative. I cannot possibly claim to convince you in so short a time by my very imperfect methods that my theory is the true one but I hope you will be able to say that I have, at least, produced some evidence in support of the propositions with which I started, viz. •
ist. That Southampton Water was the scene of the second landing of the Romans.
2nd. That Clausentum was the Enton or Anton of Claudius.
3rd. That Winchester was the Camulodunum which Claudius subdued on his short visit to Britain.
4th. That the warlike tribe known as the Iceni were the dwellers upon or near the historic Itchen, whose banks from source to mouth are full of remains of Roman occupation, and where the Roman coins found at Clausentum and elsewhere extend over the entire range of the rulers of Rome during that period.
If I have in ever so slight a degree established all, or any, of these points I shall have done something to dispel the clouds which have hitherto obscured the dawn of the history of Southampton. The decision must rest with scholars more able than myself to try the key I have so rudely forged, to the rusty lock of time, and to them I leave it, with every apology for my temerity in thinking that I have been able to overcome, what has so long remained one of the greatest difficulties in connection with these events.
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