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ARCHITECTURE IN SOUTHAMPTON.
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filled up and rendered invisible, is now easily seen from the street. Judging- from the extent to which the loop-holes have been damaged, a great many arrows must have been discharged at and by the archers sheltering behind the battlements.
Various additions were made to the Bar-gate from time to time, the chief being the building of the splendid northern front that now fills the space between the two half-round towers, covering the inward side of each and . extending considerably beyond them. It was probably built towards the end of the 14th century, and is a most picturesque and interesting piece of work, bold, unsymmetrical, and informal. No building could possibly be more expressive of the genuis of Gothic design, full of careless restless freedom and contempt for those laws by which the architects of Ancient Greece and Rome and of the Renaissance bound themselves,—and under which they wrought such beauty. Every feature that might condemn this north front in the judgment of men trained to regard the want of symmetry and regularity as a fault, only emphasises its boldness and originality, and it is certain that there is nowhere anything of the kind finer or
more characteristic.
The south front has a beauty of its own, but it is of a totally different sort, tame and flat by comparison. The windows and arches are of no special merit, and the tall narrow entrances to the side passages, as high as the roadway arch while only about half its width, spoil the balance of the design. These passages were made between 1764 and 1778, and they are formed (at any rate partially) of unworthy brick concealed with a coating of cement.
Several different sorts of stone have been found in the Bargate and its two flanking towers, but the bulk of the material came from the Isle of Wight, which supplied most of the stone used in this neighbourhood in the middle ages. .
Eastward from the Bargate the wall is continuous to York Buildings, and in this stretch of masonry there are two towers still visible. Further on, at the north-east corner where the line of wall turns southward, stands the large circular tower known as Polymond's or St. Deny's Tower. John Polymond and William Bacon were two men wlio in 1380 were ordered to make payments, by surveys of Sir John Foxley, for the construction of a tower described as "a tower on Oldecastellhill." It would be interesting to know if the names of any of the men employed with Polymond survive traditionally in connection with the town's defensive works. These names are Thorpe, Mannesfield, Pypering, and Baillie, besides Foxley and Bacon just mentioned. The Keeper of Southampton at this period was Sir
John d'Arundel. ,
While preparing these notes I was struck by the prefix (Jlde m the compound word " Oldecastellhill." The order to Polymond to build a tower there bears the date March 4th, 1380. Now the tower we know as Polymond's is not on what we know as Castle Hill. That
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