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The water supply is derived from wells in the chalk at Otter bourne, near Winchester, and the service reservoirs contain six million gallons. The water is of first-class purity and is softened by. the "Clarke" process to 70 of hardness. The average con-. sumption is 3h million gallons per day. Extensive sewerage schemes were also carried out in 1898, by which the former independent systems existing in various districts have been merged into one comprehensive system for the whole of the enlarged borough.
The Southampton Gas Company 's mains extend as far as Stoneham, Swaythling, Bishopstokfe, Eastleigh and Chandlersford; also to Millbrook, Redbridge, Eling, Bassett, Bitterne, ;Woolston, West End and Netley.
The street tramways, opened in 1879, now extend from the Itchen floating bridge and Town quay to the Southampton common, and to Portswood, Bitterne Park, Hampton Park and Shirley, and from Northam to the clock tower, Above Bar street. The undertaking is owned by the Corporation. v
The. port and harbour of Southampton are controlled by the Southampton Harbour Board,-under their Acts 1863 to 1913. There is ample depth of water in the harbour, and safe anchorage for the largest ships afloat, "w hich can enter or leave at any time of tide. The ne"^ uniform system of buoyage in the .Harbour has been adopted at this port, and gas buoys are laid down in the Solent at the entrance of the harbour and in the port itself. The Town quays, at the bottom of the High street, and belonging to the Harbour Board, have a quay frontage of over 4,500 feet: there are electric and steam cranes and every accommodation for working cargoes. There is a depth of water at this quay, of 33 feet at high water spring tides. A large and increasing trade is carried on with ports in France, the Baltic, coastwise &c.
Southampton gained much prominence by the departure from and arrival at the port of the troops and many illustrious Generals engaged in the South African War.
" The Royal Pier, the largest in the South of England, also belonging to the Harbour Board, was originally constructed in the year 1833, and was opened by Queen Victoria, then the Princess Victoria. . It was reconstructed in 1892 a,nd re-opened by H.R.IJ. the Duke of Gonnaught. It affords a beautiful and extensive promenade and has a length
of about 1,100 feet. In 1894 a pavilion for bands and concerts was erected, capable of seating 1,000 persons, and a new al fresco concert enclosure and shelters have been added for the comfort of patrons. The trains of the L. & S. W. R. Co. run to the pier head. There is a considerable passenger and excursion traffic to the Isle of Wight and other pJaces.
Steam navigation has added considerably to the importance of Southampton, whence passengers (in normal times) embark for the Isle-of Wight, Jersey, Guernsey, the Clyde, Dublin, Belfast, Cork and other Irish ports, Falmouth, London, Plymouth, Liverpool, St. Malo, Granville, Cherbourg, Honfleur, Havre, Antwerp, Bremen, Hamburg, to all parts of the Mediterranean, the Peninsula and the East and West Indies, Cape, Australia. Brazil, River Plate, Japan, the Pacific, New York, Canada arid other places. The trade of Southampton is very considerable, embracing coastwise the Channel Islands, the Continent, Northern Europe, and nearly every part of the world.
Southampton communicates by railway with London, Winchester, Basingstoke, Farn-borough, Aldershot Camp, Oxford, Birmingham, Windsor, Reading and the Valley of the Thames, Cheltenham, Salisbury, Yeovil, Exeter and West of England and North Devon, Stokes Bay, Southsea, Portsmouth and Gosport (by the line to Netley, Swan-wick, Bursledon, Fareham &c.) ; and by the pleasant coast line, through the beautiful scenery of the New Forest, to Brocken-hurst, Bournemouth, Swanage, Weymouth and Lymington, whence there are steamers to Yarmouth and Ryde, Isle of Wight.
The Didcot, Newbury and Southampton Railway Company also run trains direct aetween Southampton, Reading, London (Paddington), and Oxford and the North and Midlands in connection with the Great Western and Great Central systems; the Midland and South Western Junction Railway places Southampton in direct communication with Cheltenham, Birmingham, the Midlands, the North of England, Scotland and Ireland, via Heysham and Holyhead. The terminus of the London and Sout h Western Railway Company, situated to the south of the town, is close to and in direc t touch with the docks, and the West station 'which has been entirely reconstructed and considerably enlarged) is on the western shore. The line runs for a long distance by the side of Southampton Water.

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