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communications connecting the town with the eastern bank of Southampton Water. The shores of the estuary or bay are richly wooded, and afford a continuous stretch of beautifully diversified scenery, studded with villages, mansions and villas. Southampton Water, which is about 2 miles broad at its entrance, near Calshot Castle, stretches north-westward nearly 7 miles, and on the eastern shore are the picturesque ruins of Netley Abbey, and on the west is the extensive and beautiful tract of country known as the New Forest. The town is distinguished for the beauty of its situation, and is approached from the London road through an avenue of stately elms across the common. The principal entrance is through the ancient Bar Gate, an embattled and machicolated structure, on the north front of which are two gigantic figures, representing Sir Bevois of Southampton and the giant Ascupart, whom, according to legendary tale, Sir Bevois is said to have conquered in single combat: this gate conducts immediately to the High street, which is more than half a mile in length and leads directly to the Quay, for the improvement of which the old Water Gate was taken down in 1304. In the part Above Bar are many fine ranges of buildings. Near the South Gate is a platform for cannon, where stand twelve pieces of ordnance, including an ancient gun, presented by Henry VIII. and mounted on a cast-iron carriage, the gift of the late John Fleming esq. formerly member for the
county. .
The town was first incorporated in the reign of Henry I. whose charter was confirmed by Richard I. and by King John, who assigned the customs of the port to the burgesses for an annual payment of £200 : their privileges were extended and confirmed by Henry VI. who constituted the town, with a surrounding district, into a county of itself, and these privileges were further modified by Charles 1. The 'borough of Southampton is divided into five wards. The corporation consists of a mayor, recorder, sheriff and senior and junior bailiffs, ten aldermen, and thirty councillors and subordinate officers, who hole quarterly sessions for the trial of offences not capital, and assizes (during the judge's circuit) for capital offences, their jurisdiction extending to the limits of the town and its county. Petty sessions are held daily. The parliamentary borough was conterminous with the municipal borough until the passing of the Redistribution of Seats Act, 1885, when it was extended so as to include the parish of Millbrook, the ecclesiastical district of Holy Saviour, Bitterne, the parish of St. Mary Extra, and the detached portion of Hound
included within St. Mary Extra. The borough returns two members to parliament.
The town is well paved, lighted with gas and plentifully supplied with water from springs at Mainsbriclge, about 3 miles from the town. Many of the handsome iron lamp }osts were presented by William Chamber-"uyne esq. late member for the borough, in commemoration of which the inhabitants have erected a lofty cast-iron column, sup-Dorting a large gas light. The Southampton jras Company's mains extend as far as Ports-wood, Stoneham, Swathling and Bishopstoke; also to Millbrook, Freemantle, Shirley, Red-Dridge, Eling, Bassett, Bitterne, Woolston and West End.
The street tramways, opened in 1879, expend from the Itchen floating bridge to the Southampton common, to Portswood and to Shirley, and there is also a line of omnibuses between Southampton common and Itchen bridge.
Southampton communicates by railway with London, Winchester, Basingstoke, Portsmouth, Gosport, Salisbury, Exeter, Barnstaple and North Devon; the Didcot, Newbury and Winchester line gives direct access to the North of England, and the Midland and South Junction line between Swindon and Andover . places Southampton in more direct connection with the South Wales system of railway ; there is also a coast line running through the beautiful scenery of the New Forest from Southampton to Bournemouth, Swanage, Lymington (from Lymington there are steamers running to Yarmouth, Isle of Wight), Weymouth, Portland, Dorchester and Netley. The terminus of the London and South Western railway is to the south of the town, close to the Docks ; the West End station, on the Dorchester line, is on the northwest by the waterside. A die ct line from Brockenhurst to Christchurch is in course of construction, and wil when completed, give more direct ar ces to Bournemouth.
The Southampton Docks, situated at the mouth of the estuary of the river Itchen, and opened in 1843, are of considerable depth, and having also the natural advantage of double tides,and practically four hours of high water, afford every possible convenience for the reception of the largest ships, and on account of the very sheltered harbour within which they .are placed, offer an unusual protection against risks and casualties. These docks comprise an open dock of 16 acres, with a depth of water of 18 feet at low water of spring tides—the average rise of tide being 13 feet. The dock extension has 1,700 feet in

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