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South Castle, if not originally built, was entirely Remodelled at this time, and other improvements were made in the walls and gates. The fort at Netley was formed just below the abbey, and Calshot Castle was built on the shingle at the mouth of the estuary. The first of these, shortly after the dissolution of the monasteries, was built solely, or in great part, from the materials of Netley Abbey, the remaining parts being lefc to ruin, which at the present time merely retains enough of its original walls to give the visitor a slight idea of its originality.
In 1550 a free Grammar School was founded, but the Royal Charter was not given till 1553, in the seventh year of Edward VI., who visited this town in 1552, and was much pleased at the reception he met with.
Queen Elizabeth also stopped here, on her visit to the Earl of Hertford at Netley.
It is interesting to note that during this (16th) century, the dispositions for defence made in the town were of considerable interest; the still-existing Arundel Tower, at the bottom of Bargate-street—as Orchard-street has lately been renamed—and one little tower towards Bargate, were assigned to the shoemakers, curriers, cobblers, and saddlers, and other towers to other trades.
The Chimney Sweeper to the town was a new official in 1654; he was regularly sworn into his office, to the effect that he would be ready at every call to sweep any number of chimneys at the rate of fourpence a piece; and to secure the residence and due attention of so useful a functionary, every householder had to pay him one penny per annum, "as is used in many other cytyes and townes, called by ye name of a smoake penny."—; Court Leet books.)
The passing of the Act of Uniformity in 16^2 created immense sensation in Southampton. A Dissenting Society, which was the origin of the present Above Bar Congregation, had long exist*, d, and it would appear it had amongst its members some of the principal inhabitants of the town, including Mr. Thorner, founder of the Alms Houses, and the father of Dr. Watts. The latter was at this time imprisoned for his religious contumacy in the South Castle, under the walls of which his wife and child were seen daily seated, to converse with him through his cell window. The Vicar of St. Michael's, Mr. Say, and the Vicar of All
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