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of fire during last summer, upwards of 1,250,000 gallons were pumped from the shaft, and which flowed into the reservoirs at intervals between the 17th of October and the 25th of November last.
In almost every part of the kingdom artesian wells have been sunk or their formation have been contemplated. In London and its neighbourhood they are exceedingly numerous, supplying water to the large metropolitan breweries and nursery grounds. Wells of this description have been formed in the garden of the Horticultural Society— before the episcopal palace at Fulham—at the Duke of Northumberland's, at Chiswick—at Brentford and Hammersmith, in Middlesex—at Mitcham, Staines, Tooting, and Mortlake, in Surrey—at Watford and St. Albans, in Hertfordshire—at Sheerness, Gravesend, Dover, and various other parts of Kent—in the Dockyard and White Swan Fields, at Portsmouth, and at Weovil and Farlington, near that town. In all these places artesian wells have furnished inexhaustible supplies of the purest water, and especially when they have been sunk in the chalk stratum. So favourable is the chalk formation for supplying water, that such towns as Arundel, Brighton, Deal, Walmer, Canterbury, and Winchester, situated where that stratum can be easily reached, have been celebrated for possessing a profusion of one of the indispensible necessaries of life. Sixty years ago the progress of a tunnel through Portsdown Hill, which is an insulated mass of chalk, near Portsmouth, was stopped owing to the quantity of water that flowed into it, and that mass of chalk has, for the last twenty-five years, supplied the Water Works at Farlington, the machinery of which is capable of raising water at the rate of 1078 gallons a minute. A boring carried 80 feet into the chalk at Watford, in Herts, supplied a London Water Company. The large town of Brighton is supplied with water from private wells, and from the well about a mile from the town, all of which are sunk in the chalk. At 16 feet from
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