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number of ships and an increasing population. The Commissioners of Water Works for the town therefore engaged Mr. Clark, of Tottenham, in the autumn of 1837, to make an experimental boring in the vicinity of Southampton, to ascertain from what depth a very large supply of water could be found. The spot selected for this purpose was on the Common, on the west side of the main road to Winchester, near the race-course and within the boundary of the borough.
The boring was carried down to the depth of 480 feet below the surface, and at that depth Mr/'Clark reported that an unfailing and almost unlimited supply of water could be found. A contract was soon afterwards entered into with the Commissioners for sinking" a shaft and forming an artesian well, on a scale of magnitude such as had, perhaps, never before been attempted.
This shaft has been sunk to the extraordinary, and, for the purpose of obtaining water, unequalled depth of 560 feet. The diameter of the excavation is 16 feet, from the surface to the depth of 160 feet; 14 feet, from 160 to 210 feet; below which the diameter is again reduced, until, at the entrance of the chalk, it is diminished to 8 feet 6 inches. From the commencement of the chalk to the termination of the shaft, the diameter of the excavation is 7 feet. From the surface to the depth of 480 feet the shaft is protected by cast iron cylinders, and brickwork set in hydraulic cement, which prevents the water from the upper soils flowing into the well. The boring commenced at the depth of 560 feet, and the depth through which it has passed, up to the present time, amounts to 350 feet, thus making the whole depth attained by excavating and boring to be upwards of 900 feet. The depths of the different strata through which the excavations passed before reaching the chalk was as follows : viz.,
1st, Alluvial deposits, 60 feet deep 2nd, London or blue clay, 320 ditto 3rd, Plastic clay, 85 ditto
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